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Annual meet on Epidemiology and Public Health, will be organized around the theme “Emerging innovations of pharmacon for diseases”

Epidemiologists 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Epidemiologists 2019

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\r\n Genetic Epidemiology is a mixture of several methods such as traditional epidemiology, population and family-based epidemiology, statistics, and also from bioinformatics. It is the study of the aetiology, distribution, and control of disease in groups of relatives and of inherited causes of disease in populations. From the parent disciplines of genetics and epidemiology, this has inherited the key elements of studying well defined populations while checking the genes roles and the environment in relation to one another and determining for the known biology of diseases. Quantifying the risk associated with genetic variation is a prerequisite for assessing the use of this new knowledge in medicine. Genetic epidemiology has the potential to impact human health.

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\r\n Epidemiological research has been carried out traditionally in the field of non-clinical populations to reveal the etiology of disease. It is a branch of #medicine that dealing with the incidence, distribution, and control of disease in a population. In modern clinical practice, doctors used to treat patients personally and prevent disease using clinical epidemiology. The diagnosis and treatment take’s very few minutes or a few weeks depending upon the complication of the issue. Epidemiologic studies can be broadly classified into Observational studies & Experimental studies. Observational studies are also called as epidemiological studies or analytical studies. Analytical epidemiological studies are used to study the relationship between development of disease and health outcome.

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\r\n Cancer epidemiology is the study of the distribution, determination, and frequency of malignant disease in specific populations. #Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally, and is responsible for an estimation of 9.6 million deaths in 2018. Globally, about 10 in 6 deaths is due to cancer. Approximately 70% of cancer deaths are occurred in low- and middle-income countries and also some infections, such as hepatitis and human papilloma virus (HPV), are responsible for up to 25% of cancer cases. Around one third cancer deaths are occurred due to the 5 leading behavioral and dietary risks: high body mass index, low #nutrition intake, lack of physical activity, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption. Epidemiologic assessment provides the participant with a quantification of cancer risk, outlines the basis for screening modalities for high-risk populations, and determines the efficacy of any preventive intervention.

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\r\n More than 1 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are seen every day worldwidly. STIs are spread predominantly by sexual contact, including vaginal, anal and oral sex. Some STIs can also be spread through non-sexual means via blood or blood products. Each year, there are an estimated 357 million new infections with 1 of 4 STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and trichomoniasis other are viral infections are incurable hepatitis B, herpes simplex virus (HSV or herpes), #HIV, and human papillomavirus (HPV) can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth. Symptoms or disease can be reduced or modified through treatment. More than 500 million people are estimated to have with herpes simplex virus (HSV)and 290 million women have a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Common symptoms of STIs include vaginal discharge, urethral discharge or burning in men, genital ulcers, and abdominal pain.

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\r\n Immunopharmacology is a branch of pharmacology which concerned with the effects of drugs on the immune system. Immunopharmacology involves the study of the regulation of the immune system by pharmacological agents and the development of methods to selectively modify immune function to treat human disease. In the last 15 years, the demonstration of cellular immune defects in cancer, #aging, autoimmunity, and infectious diseases has generated interest in the development of immunotherapeutic agents. For more than 50 years, drugs targeting immune cell pathways and receptors have been extensively exploited in the treatment of inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune disorders, and in preventing rejection following organ transplantation. Among them, many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihistamines, corticosteroids and immunosuppressant agents have reached blockbuster status and are even included in the list of essential medicines of the World Health Organization.

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\r\n Rare diseases affect small percentage of the population in recent years.  Around 80% of rare diseases are genetic in origin. Cambridge Healthtech Institute’s symposium on #Drug Discovery for Rare Diseases will bring together leading scientists, clinicians, executives and experts who are involved in finding new drug targets and drug modalities for treating rare disorders. This unique one-day event will encourage people from diverse backgrounds to discuss potential opportunities, as well as existing challenges in this field. It’s an opportunity for scientific and technical experts to come together to exchange ideas, experiences and to set up collaborations for rare disease research.

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\r\n Oral diseases is the most common non communicable diseases (NCDs) that which effect people throughout their lifetime by causing pain, discomfort, disfigurement and even death.The Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 estimated that half of the world’s population is effected by oral diseases like dental caries (tooth decay) in permanent teeth being the most prevalent condition fixed.In some Asian-Pacific countries, the incidence of oral cancer (cancer of the lip and oral cavity) is within the top 3 of all cancers. Dental treatment is costly, averaging 5% of total health expenditure and 20% of out-of-pocket health expenditure in most high-income countries. The oral health care demands are beyond the capacities of the health care systems in most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Behavioural risk factors for oral diseases are shared with other major NCDs, such as an unhealthy diet high in free sugars, tobacco use and harmful use of alcohol, exposure to fluoride have negative effects on oral health.

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\r\n Clinical Data Management (CDM) is used in clinical research to manage the data of a clinical trial. The clinical trial data is gathered from the investigator site in the case report form are stored in the CDMS. To reduce the possibility of errors due to human entry, the systems enlist different means to verify the entry. The most popular method is double data entry. Once the data has been screened in typographical errors, again the data is validated to check for logical errors. Another function that the #CDM  perform is the coding of data. Currently, the coding is generally centered on two areas; adverse event terms and medication names. CDM is having multidisciplinary activities like Clinical data management activities are Data acquisition/collection, Data abstraction/extraction, Data processing/coding, Data analysis, Data transmission, Data storage, Data privacy, Data QA.

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\r\n Reproductive Epidemiology deals with the distribution and determination of diseases in human population. The main topics that which include are planning, adolescent sexual behavior, maternal morbidity and mortality ,family domestic violence, contraceptive safety and efficacy and population-based reproductive health surveys. perinatal epidemiology consists of  pregnancy side-effects such as gestational #diabetes, preeclampsia, preterm birth, birth defects, and also pregnancy outcomes. Pediatric epidemiology focus on disorders and diseases in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood, including eating disorders, obesity, asthma, allergies, migraine, and depression.

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\r\n Nanotechnology is science of theme and material that deal with particle size in nanometers. Nanotechnology has received a lot of attention because of its future potential. Nano technology offers the advantage of protecting drugs from degradation,reduce the number of doses required. It is a revolutionary technique that  which utilizes devices and molecules in the range of 1-100 nanometers. Particles exposed to nanotechnology exhibits superior characteristics including resistance to settling, higher saturation solubility state, protection from decomposition, enhanced drug release, increased adhesion to biological membranes, improved strength and reduced weight, enhanced absorption and improved chemical reactivity as compared to their larger scale corresponding item. There are different techniques for the preparation of nano drug delivery systems like nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanocrystals, nanosuspensions, nanoemulsions. The ultimate goal of #Nano technology is to develop useful formulation to  treat diseases in patients. Although, nanotechnology is performing good role in modern advancements from cell phones to medici

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\r\n Psychiatric epidemiology is a field which studies about the mental disorders in society, as well as conceptualization and prevalence of mental illness. It is a subfield of general epidemiology. However, the field has been expanded to the study of a wide area of environmental risk factors, such as major life events, as well as genetic exposures. Increasing #neuroscience techniques like MRI are used to explore the mechanisms behind the risk factors that may impact psychological problems and explore the neuroanatomical substrate underlying psychiatric disorders.

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\r\n Pharmacology is the study of drugs that effect on humans in clinical studies. Part of the task is to research and assess the risk verses the benefit of drugs in patients. Epidemiology is the science that studies the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in specified populations. Pharmacoepidemiology is therefore defined as a study of possitive and negative effects of drugs in large numbers of people or a population. Pharmacoepidemiology research at Department of Clinical Epidemiology is closely related with other research areas and clinical expertise. The research focuses on associations between use of medication and procedures in relation to outcomes of chronic and acute conditions. Our current projects examine the use of medications in relation to outcomes of infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis, cancer, and pregnancy.

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\r\n Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of  progressive loss in kidney function over a period of months or years.  Early on there are typically no symptoms Later, leg swelling, feeling tired, vomiting, loss of appetite, or confusion may develop.Complications may include heart disease, high blood pressure, bone disease, or anemia. A great no of  patients enrolled in the end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although the exact reasons for the growth of the ESRD is unknown, changes in the demographics of the population, differences in disease burden among racial groups, and under-recognition of earlier stages of CKD and of risk factors for CKD may partially explain this growth .However, despite the magnitude of the resources committed to the treatment of ESRD and the substantial improvements in the quality of dialysis therapy, these patients continue to experience significant mortality and morbidity and a reduced quality of life.

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\r\n Research in the chronic disease epidemiology cluster addresses the etiology, prevention, distribution, natural history, and treatment outcomes of chronic health disorders, including cancer (particularly breast, colon, lung, prostate, ovary and pancreas), cardiovascular disease, diabetes, gastrointestinal and pulmonary disease, and obesity. Epidemiology role is widely accepted in public health programs but  in chronic disease programs is not as widely recognized. chronic disease program managers and public health decision makers are the one possible barrier to improe epidemiological capacity in chronic disease prevention may have a limited understanding of basic chronic disease epidemiology functions.

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\r\n Epidemiology is the study of how often diseases occur in different groups of people and why and analysis of the cause, effect, and pattern of diseases. Public health is a mixture of many different sciences and skills. It is the key discipline for public health and identifies risk factors for  the disease and targets for preventive healthcare.  It is applied to cover the description of epidemic diseases and health-related disorders like obesity and high blood pressure.  The fundamental regions of professional epidemiology having different types of epidemiologic evaluation of public health records, health affairs of state and trend analyses, public health surveillance and health software impact evaluation.

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